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Does pasteurising colostrum reduce Johne's disease morbidity in adult cattle?

Clinical Scenario

Mr Hollis manages a 200-cow Holstein-Friesian dairy herd and you carry out routine visits on the farm every 4 weeks.  There have been 2 cases of Johne's disease recently found on the farm and you have been discussing the control options with Mr Hollis that could be applied to prevent other animals being infected.  Mr Hollis has been researching the condition on the internet and has seen that on some websites, pasteurisation of colostrum has been recommended.  He asks you whether you think it would make a difference, and you wonder whether pasteurisation of colostrum would result in a lower Johne's morbidity in the adult herd.....

3-Part Question (PICO)

In [calves at risk of Johne's disease] does [fresh/raw versus pasteurised colostrum] result in a [reduced disease morbidity in adult cattle]?

Search Strategy and Summary of Evidence

Search Strategy

MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE(R) 1946 to Present using the OVID interface

(calf.mp. OR calves.mp. OR bovine.mp. OR bovines.mp. OR young stock.mp. OR youngstock.mp. OR cattle.mp. OR exp Cattle/)

AND

(Johnes.mp. OR Johne's.mp. OR Johnes disease.mp. OR Johne's disease.mp. OR Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.mp. OR Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.mp. OR Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.mp. OR Paratuberculosis.mp. OR MAP.mp. OR exp Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis/ OR exp Paratuberculosis/)

AND

(colostrum.mp. OR colostrums.mp. OR cow colostrum.mp. OR cow colostrums.mp. OR colostral.mp. OR first milk.mp. OR bisnings.mp. OR beestings.mp. OR exp Colostrum/ OR heat treat$.mp. OR pasteuris$.mp. OR pasteuriz$.mp. OR pasteris$.mp. OR pasteriz$.mp. OR HTST.mp. OR high temperature short time.mp. OR exp Pasteurization/)

CAB Abstracts 1910 to Present using the OVID interface

(calf.mp. OR calves.mp. OR bovine.mp. OR bovines.mp. OR young stock.mp. OR youngstock.mp. OR cattle.mp. OR exp Cattle/ OR exp calves/)

AND

(Johnes disease.mp. OR Johne's disease.mp. OR Johnes.mp. OR Johne's.mp. OR Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.mp. OR Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.mp. OR Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.mp. OR Paratuberculosis.mp. OR MAP.mp. OR exp Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/ OR exp paratuberculosis/)

AND

(cow colostrum.mp. OR cow colostrums.mp. OR first milk.mp. OR colostrum.mp. OR bisnings.mp. OR beestings.mp. OR colostral.mp. OR colostrums.mp. OR exp cow colostrum/ OR exp colostrum/ OR heat treat$.mp. OR pasteuriz$.mp. OR pasteuris$.mp. OR pasteris$.mp. OR pasteriz$.mp. OR HTST.mp. OR high temperature short time.mp. OR exp heat treatment/ OR exp Pasteurization/)

Search Outcome

MEDLINE

  • 139 papers found in MEDLINE search
  • 138 papers excluded as they don't meet the PICO question
  • 0 papers excluded as they are in a foreign language
  • 0 papers excluded as they are review articles/in vitro research/conference proceedings
  • 1 total relevant papers from MEDLINE

CAB Abstracts

  • 208 papers found in CAB search
  • 207 papers excluded as they don't meet the PICO question
  • 0 papers excluded as they are in a foreign language
  • 0 papers excluded as they are review articles/in vitro research/conference proceedings
  • 1 total relevant papers from CAB

Total relevant papers

1 relevant papers from both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts

Summary of Evidence

Godden et al. 2015 USA

Title:

Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows

Patient group:

Newborn calves from six herds in Minnesota, USA, which had had at least one animal in the herd test positive for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by faecal culture or serum ELISA within the previous three years. 

Study Type:

Randomised controlled trial 

Outcomes:
  • MAP status of the colostrum fed to the newborn calves, using PCR
  • MAP status of the heifers as adult cows in first, second and third lactation using both faecal culture and serum ELISA
  • Recorded the milk production of the cows in first and second lactation
  • Recorded any culling or deaths within the cohort of animals 
Key Results:
  • Heat treating colostrum does not appear to decrease the risk of becoming MAP positive in the future as an adult
Study Weaknesses:
  • There was a lack of uniformity between treatment groups as there was different colostrum and calf rearing management practices between the six farms 
  • There was a lack of information of other potential Johne's control points and risk factors for the six farms
  • There was a small final sample size, with 70% of the enrolled animals not appearing in the final sample, with some animals not accounted for
  • There was a low prevalence of MAP positive colostrum fed to the calves 
  • The tests used had poor sensitivity for the detection of MAP
  • There was no mention of blinding 
  • The farms used had to have at least one MAP positive animal (based on either faecal culture or serum ELISA) within the previous 3 years, but were a convenience sample, based on location proximity to the University 
Attachment:
Evidence appraisalEvidence appraisal

Comments

This is the only study that has investigated the impact of heat treating colostrum fed to calves on their subsequent MAP status by their third lactation.

The study did report that heat treating the colostrum did result in a higher immunoglobulin content, which could possibly have benefits on future calf health. There have been other studies which have investigated the impact of heat treating colostrum on immunoglobulins, in relation to calf health and the concentration of MAP found within the colostrum; these may also assist with clinical decision-making. Other literature has reported a positive association with heat treating colostrum and calfhood diseases including diarrhoea; however quality assessments have not been carried out on these studies in this BET so should be interpreted with a level of uncertainty at this stage.

Bottom line

There is currently limited evidence to support the use of pasteurisation as a tool to reduce the morbidity of Johne's disease within an adult cattle herd. 

Disclaimer

The BETs on this website are a summary of the evidence found on a topic and are not clinical guidelines. It is the responsibility of the individual veterinary surgeon to ensure appropriate decisions are made based on the specific circumstances of patients under their care, taking into account other factors such as local licensing regulations. Read small print

References

Godden SM, Wells S, Donahue M, Stabel J, Oakes JM, Sreevatsan S, Fetrow J, (2015) Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 98: 5630-5641.

About this BET

First author:
Ginny Sherwin
Second author:
Marnie Brennan
Institution:

University of Nottingham

CEVM, University of Nottingham

Search last performed:
2018-04-27 17:30:52
Original publication date:
2018-04-30 17:30:52
Last updated:
2018-04-30 17:30:52
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